As cities grow older they inherit a wealth of buildings that have economic, functional and heritage values and yet their uses may need to change, human knowledge is enhanced and thus their vulnerability to extreme events are better understood and sometimes changes may need to be made in their structure to adapt to new uses. In all of these cases, structural engineers are called upon to make an assessment of the current condition of the structure and to advise on what type of intervention is needed to ensure safety, functionality, and economy of such alterations.
• This short course is intended to overview the types of motivations for evaluation of existing concrete structures and to outline the processes to be followed to make such evaluations. Such motivations range from the need to change the use or re-plan to the situation where signs of distress in those buildings are detected. • Evaluations of existing structures start with understanding the new criteria which the structure is to be measured against and is then followed by testing of the existing properties which in turn is followed by analysis to determine whether the set criteria are met. Where a residential building is to be used as offices, new live loads will need to be investigated. Where new statistical data is available on the maximum wind speed or maximum snow accumulation, assessment of existing buildings may reveal some shortcomings. Most importantly, the ramification of seismic events are now understood more than ever before and the need to assess the resistance of old buildings is evident in many developed countries and other countries where catastrophic losses have been experienced. The course covers the processes required to evaluate and retrofit vulnerable buildings. • Marin environment is another situation where deterioration of buildings may be expedited by the presence of chloride and wetting and drying cycles. Inspection of buildings that are exposed to such severe effects is discussed in the course with recommendations for repair and the production of durable concrete. • Solutions using a traditional material such as steel and concrete are discussed. This discussion is followed by the examination of new materials. These will include the use of carbon fibers, epoxies, and various admixtures.